What is the respiratory system? The function of the respiratory system

What is the respiratory system?

What is the respiratory system?Every organism needs oxygen to survive because oxygen provides energy by oxidizing or decomposing organic food substances, this process of oxidation of food substances is called respiration.

In other words, it can be said that the oxidation process that takes place in living organisms, in which there is a gradual decomposition of complex food substances in the presence or absence of oxygen under the control of various enzymes at normal body temperature, resulting in simple food substances or The formation of water and CO2 and the release of energy is called respiration.

The respiratory system performs the task of ingesting oxygen, through the respiratory system, each cell of the body receives its supply of oxygen, as well as gets rid of oxygen production. The whole process of respiration is divided into the following parts.

Know how the breath reaches the lungs?

Now when the pure air enters through the Nasal Cavity, then it first comes through the “Pharynx”. friends! Let me tell you that the Pharynx is present at the backside of our Nasal Cavity which helps the air to go into the windpipe at the meeting place of our esophagus and windpipe. Due to this, the air enters the tube very comfortably without any discomfort and reaches the lungs.

What is the respiratory system? The function of the respiratory system

Function of respiratory system

Let me tell you that the air duct present inside the body is called the “Trachea”. By the way, there are many rings of circular “cartilage” around the trachea, which prevent it from collapsing in the absence of wind. So, the upper part of our Trachea is called the “Larynx”. friends! Whatever we speak or whatever vowel we take out of our mouth, all those sounds are made on this larynx only.

By the way, in the end, the trachea divides into two parts and reaches both our lungs. By the way, instead of dividing the trachea into two parts, a structure called “Bronchi” exists, which connects the trachea to our lungs. Due to this, the air present inside the trachea goes into the lungs very easily. It is also worth mentioning here that, inside the lungs, there are types of dry tubes called bronchioles, which are made from the bronchi themselves.

A – External respiration

B – Transport of gases

C – internal respiration

External Respiration

The exchange of respiratory gases between the animal and the environment i.e. oxygen coming into the body and carbon dioxide leaving the body is called external respiration. This type of respiration is called lung, hence it is also called respiration. This involves the introduction of oxygen into the blood and the removal of CO2 from the body, this is called the gaseous exchange.

External respiration in mammals occurs in two stages.

1 – Breathing

2 – Exchange of gases


Mammals have a pair of flexible spongy lungs, which are securely closed within a pair of cavities located in the thoracic cavity, air is filled and exhaled at a fixed rate in the lungs, such as inhalation or exhalation, the process of breathing takes place in two parts. is.


When air enters the respiratory organs from the atmosphere inside the body, then that state is called. The ribs and sternum stent were soft upwards, pull outwards, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity, the radial muscles contracting, causing the diaphragm to contract, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity in the anteroposterior direction, increasing the pressure of the thoracic cavity. Lungs expand, air reaches the lungs through nostrils, nostrils, trachea brooks, and bronchioles, etc. The exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli, oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli of the lungs. reaches.


After respiration, when the CO2 containing air comes out of the respiratory organs into the atmosphere, then that state is called exhalation, due to the contraction of the internal intercostal muscles in the exhalation, the ribs return to their place, as a result, the volume of the fluid cavity decreases and Due to the pressure on the lungs, it keeps on contracting and the air of the lungs enters the same path through which it exits and goes back to the environment, the internal intercostal muscles are also called exhalation because they are used for exhalation.

Exchange Of Gases

The gas exchange takes place in the lungs, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the lungs takes place due to the pressure difference.

Transport of gases

The movement of gases, i.e. H. Oxygen to carbon dioxide, from the lungs to the body cells and back to the lungs is known as gas transport.

Transportation Of Oxygen

Oxygen is transported mainly by the red pigment hemoglobin found in the blood. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen to form the permanent compound oxyhemoglobin which is a physical change.

This oxyhemoglobin reaches various cells of the body through blood circulation, the partial pressure of oxygen in the cells remains low, due to which the breakdown of oxyhemoglobin into oxygen and hemoglobin takes place, in this process the organization gets released and enters the tissues.

Carbon dioxide Transport

Transport of carbon dioxide from cells to the lungs through hemoglobin cable is possible only by 10 to 20% CO2 transport is also done by blood circulation in other ways which are as follows.

a. Dissolved in plasma

Carbon dioxide dissolves in blood plasma to form organic acids. About 7% of CO2 is transported in the form of organic acids.

b. as bicarbonate

Most of the carbon dioxide is transported in the form of bicarbonate, which combines with the potassium and sodium in the plasma to form potassium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate, respectively.

c. as carbamino compounds

Carbon dioxide combines with the amino group of hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin and plasma proteins to form carbamino hemoglobin, thus transporting about 23% of CO2.

 Internal Respiration

The gaseous exchange that takes place between blood and tissue inside the body is called internal respiration.

The gaseous exchange that takes place in the lungs is called external respiration. Since internal respiration takes place inside the cells, it is also called cellular respiration. From internal respiration, the following process is involved in cellular respiration.

1. Dissolution of Oxyhemoglobin

As a measure of blood circulation, oxyhemoglobin reaches the cells where the oxygen pressure is low, so oxyhemoglobin is broken down into oxygen, thus about 25% of the oxygen reaches the tissues.

2. Foods Oxidation

In the presence of oxygen in the cytoplasm, various food items are oxidized in the presence of different enzymes, resulting in the release of energy.

There are two types of internal respiration.

  1. Anaerobic respiration
  2. Aerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration

The respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen brings about respiration, in which the partial breakdown of glucose occurs through a series of complex chemical reactions. This partial breakdown of glucose takes place in the cytoplasm with the help of 12 enzymes. The whole process under this is called glycolysis. There are 4 molecules of ATP energy formed in the whole process, out of which 2 molecules of ATP energy is spent in this type of completion, thus there is a net benefit of 2 molecules of ATP, due to the partial fragmentation of glucose molecule, about 7 of them % energy is released, this remaining energy is released as a result of complete dissociation of pyruvic acid in the presence of molecular oxygen

C6 H12 O6 — 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kj

C6 H12 O6 — 2C3H6O3 + 150 kj

Anaerobic respiration usually occurs for a short period in the seeds germinating in the deep tissues of the organism in the fruit.

Anoxyrespiration is also called sugar fermentation.

Aerobic Respiration

This phase of cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria inside the cell. In this phase, a series of different chemical reactions and with the help of many enzymes, pyruvic acid is completely oxidized and in others, CO2 and water are formed and a lot of chemical energy. which is stored in ATP molecules, thus only about 55 to 60% of the total energy is available to organisms as a result of complete breakdown or complete oxidation of glucose.

C6 H12 + O6 — 6Co2 + 6H2o + 2830kj

Mechanism Of Respiration

The process of respiration usually takes place in 2 steps.


In this process, two molecules of pyruvic acid are formed from one molecule of glucose. Oxygen is not required in this process, so this process is the same in non-respiration and oxygenation, this whole process is completed in the cytoplasm. The whole process of glycolysis In this step 4 molecules of ATP are formed while 2 molecules of ATP are spent thus in this process there is a net gain of two molecules of ATP. In this process, four atoms of hydrogen are formed which are used to convert NAD to 2NADH2

Krebs cycle

This process was discovered by the British scientist Hans Krebs in 1937. The entire reaction of the Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria in eukaryotic organisms and on the cell membrane in prokaryotic organisms, in which both the molecules of pyruvic acid obtained from glycolysis are completely oxidized in the presence of oxygen. The major changes that take place in this phase are as follows.

This also happens during the process of respiration

Whenever we take a breath inside the body, then our ribs spread from the inside to the outside. Apart from this, it also rises slightly up towards the chest. By the way, the main reason for the change in such location of the ribs is the different types of muscles present around them, which surround them from all sides. In such a situation, it spreads out of the influence of these muscles and rises up.

Apart from this, the “Diaphragm” that we have during breathing, it shrinks a little below its original place, which makes room for the lungs to expand inside the body.

When we exhale and exhale, the muscles around the ribs move down again to their original position. Due to this, the already inflated lung shrinks again and becomes smaller in size. During exhalation, our Diaphragm which is there again comes up to its original state. Due to this, a cavity formed inside the body also gradually disappears.

Friends! The important point here is that the muscles that are activated during inhalation are different from the ones that are activated during exhalation. But the strange thing is that without the muscles of both, our breathing process cannot be complete.

Amazing things related to human respiratory system

  1. Amazing relationship of human respiratory system with ancient Egyptian civilization! :-
    You will be surprised to know that the human respiratory system had a wonderful relationship with the ancient Egyptian civilization. In fact, the ancient Egyptians had a very deep knowledge of the human respiratory system and knew that for humans to survive, the windpipe and lungs needed to work together.

That’s why they made such figures throughout Egypt during that time that displayed the human respiratory system. By the way, the reason behind making these respiratory systems was to spread the feeling of unity among the people living in different levels of society at that time.

What is the respiratory system? The function of the respiratory system

In a minute we take 3.7 liters of air in the act of breathing! :-

We people think that our body remains with limited capabilities, which is also true to some extent. But friends, in some areas you will be surprised to know the characteristics of your human body. Yes! If you do not believe, then listen, in a minute our lungs use about 3.7 liters of air for respiration.

So, just imagine how many liters of air a person would take in his whole life from this natural environment.

The size of both the human lungs are not the same:-

Yes! You have read the title correctly. The lungs we have are not of the same size. Our right lung is not friends, it is slightly bigger in size than our left lung. Well, the reason for this difference in size is our heart. Because our heart is present in the middle of both the lungs, which remains slightly more of the left lung. Therefore the size of the left lung is slightly smaller to make room for the heart.

Our lungs can float on water:-

Knowing you people will feel very strange, but this thing is completely true, friends. Our friends who have lungs can float on water. By the way, for more information, let me tell you that apart from the lungs, there will hardly be any other organ in our body that will be able to swim on top of the water.

If our lungs were inflated to its maximum size, it would be as big as a tennis court! :-

By the way, usually inside our body, our lungs are very shriveled and folded on the basis of many levels. But if we inflate it with air till its peak size, then it will swell and become the size of a whole tennis court. Believe me, friends, this thing related to the respiratory system facts in Hindi is completely true.

There are 30 to 500 million cells inside the lungs! :-

If you remember, I have mentioned in the introductory part of the article about Alveoli cells which reduce the exchange of gas. By the way, tell them that the number of these cells of our lungs ranges from 30 to 500 million.

Water is also necessary for breathing:-

Now some people will say here that the human body cannot breathe underwater, so how will water help us in breathing! By the way, you are also right, but friends, pay a little attention to my words too.

When the exchange of gases is taking place inside the alveoli, then after some time due to the increasing concentration of gases, the exchange process is not possible. At this time, a dry level of water is formed around the alveoli, which eliminates the concentration of gases and starts the exchange of gases again.

With this, you can say that without water, we will not be able to breathe properly.

Your lungs can hold so many liters of air! :-

Each organ has its own capacity and our lungs also have a capacity. Our lungs can take a maximum of 4.5 liters to 6 liters of air inside themselves.

Well, the thing to keep in mind here is that in humans, the lungs of men are usually larger than the lungs of women. Therefore, more air can be stored inside the lungs of men.

In the process of exhalation, you release water along with carbon dioxide:-

Very few people will know this thing that we also release water in the process of exhaling. Although basically the process of exhalation removes most of the carbon dioxide from the body but also releases up to 17.5 ml of water every one hour.

In such a situation, it can be said, how complex is the respiratory system of our body.

You can only breathe through one nostril at a time! :-

People feel that they are breathing with both Nostrils all the time. But this is not true. Most of the time we are able to breathe through this single nostril. Due to breathing from the same nostril, both of them also get relief for some time.

By the way, one nostril is open during the daytime, then the second nostril comes in handy at night. Well, do you know the reason for this? Will definitely say by commenting, we will be very happy.

What is the respiratory system? The function of the respiratory system

What is the respiratory system? The function of the respiratory system


What is the respiratory system? The function of the respiratory system

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