What is globalization?, Characteristics, and Causes

What is globalization?

Globalization is a complex process on an economic, social, political, technological and cultural level, characterized by an increasing connection, communication and interdependence between the nations that make up the world, and which brings with it a multitude of changes and trends that tend towards plurality and a certain paradoxical homogenization at the same time.

This process began after the Cold War ended at the end of the 20th century and continues into the 21st century, thanks in particular to the inexorable momentum from computer networks (Internet) and new telecommunications technologies that have brought together geographically distant populations and markets.

Globalization is one of the clear signs of the present and is usually seen as the result of the final implantation of liberal capitalism, which tends towards democracy, multiculturalism, and diversity, but also feeds the diametrically opposite tendencies of the opposition: racial liberalism, nationalism, conservatism.

The latter means that there are so many enthusiastic sectors with the Global Village project proposed by globalization, marching towards greater democratization of the world through its political and institutional connection (one-world government), as well as great critics that they are perceived as a threat to traditional and transcendental values.

Characteristics of globalization

The main characteristics of globalization can be summarized as:

  • Internationalization of markets. The “new economy” that globalization brought with it supposes the triumph of transnational capital and, therefore, of economic freedom and the free movement of capital.
  • Implementation of global culture. Communities that were never in contact can do so thanks to the global village, and this pushes them towards a new model of culture less deeply rooted in the local, and the need for new forms of cultural identity: individualism and cosmopolitanism.
  • It depends on the new ICT. The Internet and telecommunications are crucial to the global model, which enables operations to be carried out in record time across vast geographic platforms.
  • Overcome geographic boundaries. The end of borders and the construction of a global society is the final destination of the globalization process, so its processes do not pay much attention to national borders or nationalities.

What are the causes of globalization?

Among the reasons for the emergence of globalization we can mention:

The new world geopolitics of the 20th century. The triumph of capitalism at the end of the Cold War brought with it the global implantation of capital markets and a development model strongly anchored in technology and information


The growth of the global economic exchange. The need for stronger and faster exchanges of goods, and especially technological services implemented over the Internet, has led to global integration.

The computer revolution. The advent of communication and information technologies, which made it possible to connect the whole world in one large network, marked the beginning of a new global era of technology and information exchange.

The liberalization of the stock exchanges. The ability to invest in any world stock market led to a migration of capital across geographical boundaries.

Advantages of globalization

The benefits of globalization tend towards an increase in democracy and liberalism in regions of the planet which, since the existence of various computer networks and their difficulties in being controlled by the states, still cling to traditional political and social models, which makes it much more complicated to hide the dictatorships and forbidden governments, since the citizens themselves can exchange information in the network.

On the other hand, global culture enabled the emergence of new forms of employment, new investment dynamics, and a unipolar planetary vision. Also, global citizenship models offer the opportunity to overcome taboos, discrimination, and other discriminatory social tendencies as the whole world appear to be online.

Disadvantages of globalization

This process has a disadvantage with its contradictory hidden face: the consolidation of traditional values ​​as a mechanism of resistance against global values ​​is perceived as a foreign threat: nationalism, racism, xenophobia.

Similarly, access to information in global networks is so free that filters and organizers or discriminators are often needed since access to ignorance or lies.

On the other hand, not all countries enter the global village equally, and this means that the most depressed or less prepared countries may succumb to the mechanisms of local colonialism or cultural colonialism driven by the global economy.

What is economic globalization?

Along with politics and culture, economic globalization is one of the most important and concrete aspects of this phenomenon. It includes various types of production, commercialization, and interrelationships of investment at a planetary level, thus allowing the free flow of capital and goods.

Also, the emergence of the digital economy, along with new forms of remote employment and investment, led to an economic revolution, the long-term consequences of which are still difficult.

One notorious consequence of this is the shift in the balance of power between developed and developing countries, making the inequalities and panorama of opportunities for both even more complex.

What is globalization?, Characteristics,  and Causes

What is globalization?, Characteristics, and Causes


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