What is a translation in biology? Translation types

What is a translation in biology?

The translation is that process. In which the proteid is constructed using the genetic code present on the mRNA. The process of translocation takes place in the ribosome present on the Endoplasmic Reticulum. In the process of translocation, the polypeptide chain is formed by ribosomes using amino acids present in the organism.

Its process is carried out in the following steps –

Activation of Amino Acids

Aminoacyl Synthetase binds to ATP, an amino acid in the presence of an enzyme in the organism. Mg 2+ helps in this reaction. As a result of this reaction, the aminoacyl adenylate complex is formed.

Amino Acid + ATP —-> Aminoacyl Adynylate Complex

Transfer of Amino Acids on tRNA

Aminoacyl Adynylate Complex combines with a specific type of tRNA. Leading to the formation of charged tRNA (Charged tRNA). And AMP expulsion occurs. The amino acid binds to the CCA sequence present at the 3 ‘end of the tRNA.

    Aminoacyl Adynylate Complex + tRNA —–> Activated tRNA + AMP + Aminoacyl synthetase

Initiation of Translation

The smallest unit of the ribosome for the initiation of translation of mRNA joins with the mRNA to identify the presence of early codon AUG at methionine amino acid is linked by bonds hydrogenated tRNA initial codon. In which energy is provided by GTP. Now the smaller unit of the ribosome and the larger unit of the ribosome are also combined with mRNA. During this time the AUG takes place in the P-venue.

Translation, Transformation, Protein Synthesis – Translation, Transformation, Protein Synthesis –

Elongation of Translation

A newly charged tRNA (Charged tRNA) binds to the codon present in the A-site of the ribosome in the presence of GTP. The amino acid of tRNA present in the P-site then forms a peptide bond with the amino acid present in the A-site. Which is catalyzed by the peptidyl transferase enzyme.

The amino acid present at the tRNA of the P-site is transferred to the tRNA present at the A-site. When the ribosome moves in the 5′-3 ‘direction on the mRNA. So the uncharged tRNA present in the P-site enters the E-site. And the tRNA of the A-site enters the P-site. Similarly, newly charged tRNA enters the A-site. And the uncharged tRNA present in the E-site exits the ribosome. This process goes on continuously. Thus synthesis of a new polypeptide chain occurs.

Translation, Transformation, Protein Synthesis –

Termination of Translation

When the ribosome moves to the mRNA, it reaches the stop codon (UAG, UGA, UAA). So no tRNA enters the A-site of the ribosome. Due to which the process of translation ends. As soon as the translation process ends. The polypeptide chain is released and the mRNA and ribosome are separated.

Translation, Transformation, Protein Synthesis

Protein factors used in translation

They are also called translational factors.

There are three types of these

  1. Initiation Factors
  2. Elongation factors
  3. Termination or Release Factors

Initiation Factors

There are three types of these

IF-1 – It helps in the binding of IF-3.

IF-2 – It combines GTP and tRNA with the 30S subunit.

IF-3 – It connects to the 30S subunit and prevents prematurely adding the 50S subunit.

Elongation factors

There are three types of these –

EF-Tu – combines GTP and amino acyl-tRNA.

EF-Ts – separates GTP from EF-Tu.

EF-G – Promotes Translocation.

Termination or Release Factors

There are four types of these

RF-1 – Identifies UAA and UAG.

RF-2 – Identifies UAA and UGA.

RF-3 – Supports RF-1 and RF-2.

The RRF – together with the EF-G, separates the two units of the ribosome.

Factors that hinder the translation process –

The translation process is stopped by the following antibiotics

  • Chloramphenicol
  • Streptomycin
  • Puromycin
  • Tetracycline
  • Paromomycin
  • Fusidic Acids
  • Erythromycin
  • Cycloheximide
  • Diphtheria toxin

What is a translation in biology? translation 1P Types


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