What is a Phenotype?
A Phenotype is the physical expression of DNA. Rather, a genotype is the chemical composition of DNA that causes a particular phenotype. DNA is first transferred to RNA, which is a separate information molecule, which can then be translated into protein.
Phenotypes are caused by interactions of many different proteins produced by DNA. This process can be incredibly complex. Even the shortest lifetimes contain thousands of genes, producing thousands of different proteins. These proteins interact with each other and with the environment in complex ways, allowing the body to obtain energy from nutrients.
In a simple sense, each gene can produce only one protein. This protein can take many different forms, depending on the different pairs in the population. Some of these forms will be functional, while other forms will be less functional or will not work at all. If a trait is controlled by a single protein, the genotype that the animal receives for that protein will determine whether the trait is adaptive or harmful in the pursuit of reproduction.
For example, the genes of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a mutation that produces specific proteins for the transport of chlorine molecules through the membrane. Because its genotype contains a non-functional mutation from which the protein formed does not function properly. Therefore, they have a non-functional phenotype, which causes many health problems.
Examples of phenotype
Melanin is a molecule produced by many animals. This is known as a pigment or a molecule that gives the tissue a dark color. In humans, melanin levels vary in the hair, eyes and skin that cause such a wide diversity in the world. While many genes control the distribution of melanin, only a few genes are responsible for its production. Therefore, in any population worldwide, individuals may find that they do not produce any melanin, a condition known as albinism.
People with albinism, regardless of their race or parental phenotypes, have little ability to produce melanin. Without pigment in their system, their hair and skin appear white, and the eyes are usually pink.
Albinism occurs in all populations because the pool of genes responsible for the production of melanin is large, and mutations in either of them can disrupt the entire process. Although mutations are rare, when enough people are breeding, the trait will appear. However, due to the lack of protection from sun rays, albinism is accompanied by many skin and eye cancers. This may explain why albinism is usually seen in only a small part of the population.
Animals also experience albinism, as the pathways that produce melanin in them are similar to those of humans. Albinism has been documented in most mammals.
All mammals use melanin as a pigment. Other groups of animals use different pigments, with different mechanisms to create those pigments. Albinism is also possible in animals if the genes producing the pigmented phenotype are disrupted. Sometimes these mutations are selected, as in the case of winter animals, which often show partial albinism in their coat, allowing them to absorb and absorb more solar energy.
Gregor Mendel is best known for his contributions to genetics. As a scramble in a Germany abbey, Mendel studied pea phenotypes. Mendel was particularly interested in phenotype ratios among lineages. Mendel noticed that when he cut yellow peas with green peas, sometimes the offspring would be half yellow and half green, and sometimes the offspring would be all yellow.
Mendel concluded that each pea carries two forms of genes for color. Now we call these alleles, and we know that Mendel’s peas will produce offspring of different colors. In the following Punet classes, each class represents a possible offspring among the parents listed outside the larger class. Remember, each parent assigns an allele to each child.
The color phenotype in peas is caused by a gene that produces yellow pigment. Without this pigment, chloroplasts in peepal give it a green color. Each organism has two alleles for a gene, each derived from a parent. If an organism acquires a single allele that can produce yellow pigment, then the Peepode will be yellow. If so, neither of the two gametes can produce yellow pigment, the peas will appear green.
The yellow allele is known as the dominant allele because only a yellow phenotype or outward appearance will be the cause. The green allele is recurring because you need two green alleles in one person to produce.
What is a phenotype? Examples of phenotypes and Mendel’s Pea