What does the mitochondria do?
- Mitochondria Greek word Bhashake two words Mitos ie thread (Thread) and Chondrion means is composed of particles (granule). Therefore, mitochondria are also known as the powerhouse of the cell.
- The randomly scattered double-membrane organelles in the cytoplasm of all living plant and animal cells are called neoplasms or mitochondria. With the help of a microscope inside the cell, they look round, elongated, or elliptical.
Where are mitochondria found?
Mitochondria are found in all creatures and all types of cell animal cells and plant cells.
Discovery of Mitochondria
- It was first observed by the kolliker in the striated muscles of insects.
- Mitochondria words. C. Benda ( Benda was given).
- Fleming‘s mitochondria to filla and Altman Bayoplast. It is considered a cell organelle.
- Mitochondria are similar to rickettsia bacteria.
- This is an example of maternal inheritance) or cytoplasmic inheritance.
- They are spherical, spiny, or threadlike in shape.
- They have an average length of 5 to 8 μm and a diameter of 0.5 to 1 μm.
- Generally, their number can range from 50 to 5000 in a cell.
Number of mitochondria
- Its number varies among different cells such that cells with greater metabolic activity have higher numbers of mitochondria.
- Typically, the number 1000–1600 in a cell.
- Prokaryotic cells, anoxic respiratory cells, and mammalian mammals have lower numbers of RBCs.
- Microbes have mitochondria in the cell of the green algae and sporozoite.
- Chaos amoeba and pleomyxa contain 5 million mitochondria.
- Animal cells have more mitochondria than plant cells.
Structure of Mitochondria
- It is usually sausage-shaped or cylindrical, fibrous, or rodlike.
- It has a diameter of 0.2–1.0µm and a length of 1.0–4.1µm.
- Mitochondria is a dual membrane bonding structure, consisting of the following components:
- Mitochondria are found only in eukaryotic cells
- . Mitochondria lack prokaryotic cells.
- One and a few unicellular organisms are found in a cell of algae called Microstheries up to 500000.
- The outer membrane of mitochondria is made up of proteins and phospholipids (1: 1 ratio) with a high amount of phosphatidylcholine. It has a thickness of 60–70 Å.
- Very large molecules (6000 kD) can be transferred by its outer membrane.
- It contains a large number of recessed proteins called porins.
- Important – On the surface of the outer membrane, there are no particles found, which are called subunits of a parson.
It is a space between 80–100Å in size between both membranes of mitochondria.
- It is the inner membrane of mitochondria on which enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation are found. On this membrane, there is a process of ATP synthesis.
- The outer surface of the inner membrane is called C-Face and the inner surface is called M-Face.
- The inner membrane has several projections called cristae.
- Christie has the same structure as a tennis racket. Those are called F2 particles or exosomes or inner membrane subunit. Exosomes are ATPase enzymes that participate in oxidative phosphorylation.
- The exosome is formed by two factors F0 and F1. The F0 particle is based on the peroxisome. Which helps the F1 particle join with the inner membrane. And the F0 F1 particle is called OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein). The distance between the two exosomes is 100Å.
- The fluid-filled space surrounded by the inner membrane is known as the matrix.
- It contains about 2/3 of the total mitochondrion protein. These proteins contain the Krebs cycle enzyme, the respiratory enzyme.
- Special mitochondrial ribosomes, T-RNA, and mitochondrial DNA include multiple copies of the genome.
- Mitochondrial DNA semi-autonomous organelle ( Semi-Autonomous called organelles) because they contain mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) appearance. Due to which it can manufacture its proteins and enzymes.
- Mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded, naked, granular, circular, high GC ratio molecule. Mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) is 1% of the total DNA of the cytoplasm.
- The genome (mt-DNA) in mitochondria is small. But the number of genes is very high.
- The size of mt-DNA is greater in plants than in animals.
- Mutations in mt-DNA cause labor optic neuropathy disorder. In which the eye’s optic nerve is damaged neurons associated with (Optic Nerve).
- mt-DNA is used to study phylogenetic relationships.
Ribosome and RNA
- Mitochondria contain 70S ribosomes which are composed of 50S and 30S subunits. And some amount of RNA is found.
What is the function of the mitochondria?
- There is cellular respiration.
- It involves the synthesis of ATP, ATP storage, and transport. Due to these three functions in mitochondria, it is called the powerhouse of the cell.
- The mitochondria found in neurons help in the formation of neurohormones.
- The mitochondrial kinase enzyme in the mitochondria during vitellogenesis makes the enzyme (Yolk) dense and insoluble.
- Where mitochondria go to the cell’s powerhouse or energy house, the energy released during oxygenation is stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When the cell requires energy for various biological functions, it is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate molecule, and breaks down into energy.
- Through the Krebs cycle glycolysis, the glucose molecule breaks down into two pyruvic molecules, which are oxidized by various respiratory enzymes present in the matrix in the form of a cyclic pathway called the Krebs cycle.
- Oxyphosphorylation This action occurs in exosome particles located on the inner Delhi of mitochondria.
- Mitochondria are major cells involved in the process of photorespiration.
If the outer membrane of mitochondria is removed, it is called Mitoplast. The mitochondria can function even after the outer membrane is removed.
A substance present in Mitochondria
- Proteins in the organization 65% – 70%, phospholipid 25% RN 0.5% Some amount of DNA is found
- Enzymes found in mitochondria oxidize foods in respiration.
What does the mitochondria do? Function of the mitochondria, diagram of mitochondria