What does golgi apparatus do? Definition, Overview
Definition of the Golgi apparatus
What does Golgi Apparatus do?The Golgi apparatus is an organelle in eukaryotic organisms that transports molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to their destination. The organelle also modifies the products of the endoplasmic reticulum in its final form. The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened sacs that extend from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi Apparatus Overview
The main function of the Golgi apparatus is the ability to deliver vesicles or packages of various cell products to different locations in the cell. The Golgi also plays an important role in marking vesicles with proteins and sugar molecules that act as identifiers for the vesicles so that they can be delivered to the correct destination. The organelle is also called the Golgi complex or Golgi body.
Normally, proteins and cell products are made in the endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has several ribosomes that assemble proteins from instructions given by messenger RNA. In the rest of the endoplasmic reticulum, these protein products fold and modify. When they get to the Golgi apparatus, more modifications will be made. Finally, the products are packaged in vesicles that are “tagged” by other proteins and molecules. The vesicles are released and the cytoskeleton uses their marks or marks to get them to the correct place in the cell.
What does golgi apparatus do?
The Golgi apparatus has many discrete functions
However, all functions are linked to moving molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to their final destination, thereby modifying certain products. Golgi sacks serve as various chambers for chemical reactions. As the products of the endoplasmic reticulum move through the Golgi apparatus, they are constantly being transferred to new environments and the reactions that can take place are different.
In this way, a product can be modified or several products can be combined to form large macromolecules. The many sacs and folds of the Golgi apparatus allow many reactions to occur simultaneously, increasing the speed at which an organism can produce products.
Marking of cellular products
Regardless of the product, the vesicles containing the product move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cis side of the Golgi apparatus. For the layperson, this is the side that faces the endoplasmic reticulum. The side furthest from the endoplasmic reticulum is called the trans-surface of the Golgi apparatus, and that is where the products go.
After changes or additions to their structure, the products are packed in vesicles and provided with markings that indicate where the vesicles should end. These tags can be molecules such as phosphate groups or special proteins on the surface of the vesicle. Once the gallbladder is marked, it is excreted by the Golgi on its way to its final destination.
Completion of the cellular products
There are many products made by eukaryotes, from proteins that can perform chemical reactions to lipid molecules that can build new cell membranes. Some products are designed for the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus itself and travel in the opposite direction to most vesicles. Although the endoplasmic reticulum makes most of the products and bases used, it is the Golgi apparatus that is responsible for the final presentation and assembly of the products. Often the environment has to differ slightly from that in the endoplasmic reticulum in order to obtain certain end products. The many sacs of the Golgi apparatus serve to provide many different areas in which reactions can take place under the most favorable conditions.
In secretory cells or cells that make large amounts of a substance your body needs, the Golgi apparatus is very large. Look at the cells in your stomach that secrete acid. Acid is produced by reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum and modified as it passes through the Golgi apparatus. Once on the trans side of the Golgi apparatus, the acid is packed into a vesicle and released to the surface of the cell. When the vesicles attach to the plasma membrane, acid is released into the stomach so that it can digest food.
Golgi Apparatus Structure
The following image shows the construction of the Golgi apparatus. The cis side of the organelle is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum. The trans side is the side farthest from the nucleus that secretes vesicles to different parts of the cell. There are also a series of lumens and cisterns for the products to flow through. These appear as a series of flattened sacs that are stacked on top of each other, much like the endoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi apparatus location
The Golgi apparatus is located between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cell membrane. Most often, the Golgi appears to be a slightly smaller and smoother extension of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the Golgi apparatus can easily be confused with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Although they appear similar, the Golgi is a separate organelle with different functions.
Golgi Apparatus Function Theory
The most widespread theory of the formation of the Golgi apparatus is the cisterna maturation model. This model suggests that the sacs themselves tend to move from the cis to the trans side of the Golgi apparatus over time. The new sacs form closer to the endoplasmic reticulum. These sacs “age” when they face the trans face of the Golgi apparatus and their product fully matures.
It may appear that there can never be enough lipids to create the continuous cell membrane flux necessary to continually create transport vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, there are continuous segments of the cell membrane that are produced and recycled by the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and other organelles of the cell, as well as the outer cell membrane itself. The Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum work together to produce new cell membranes and recycle the cell membranes of the vesicles by fusing two membranes as the vesicles are absorbed.
The Golgi also forms lysosomes. These bags contain digestive materials. The bags are tied by the Golgi apparatus and are used to process phagocytosed materials or to digest organelles that no longer function. The lysosome supplies raw materials to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi apparatus in plant cells
While this article primarily looks at how the Golgi apparatus works in animal cells, plant cells also have a Golgi apparatus. In fact, plant cells can contain hundreds of these organelles.
Within plant cells, the Golgi apparatus performs the additional function of synthesizing the most important polysaccharide molecules that help build the cell wall. Plants typically have many more Golgi bodies than animal cells. Furthermore, plant cells do not contain lysosomes. These digestive organelles are replaced in the plant by the central vacuole, which serves as a large lysosome and as an organelle for storing water. So many vesicles migrate from the Golgi bodies of plants to the vacuole and fuse their contents with this large organelle.
Golgi Apparatus, Definition, Overview, Function, Location, And Theory