What are omnivorous animals?
Omnivorous animals (from the Latin omni “all” and vorare “eat”) are heterotrophic organisms that eat flexibly, ie are not specialized. This means that they can feed on different sources of organic matter without too much distinction, be it vegetable (like herbivores) or animal (like carnivores).
Omnivores tend to feed on what is available at this point so their diet can be varied. They are opportunistic and general eaters who may play the role of a predator, scavenger, or vegetarian consumer.
However, they should not be confused with adaptive cases where some herbivores might eat meat, or some carnivores might eat plants. Omnivores can switch between one diet and another with full consciousness and will.
Characteristics of omnivorous animals
In contrast to carnivores, which are physically and biochemically adapted to the extraction and digestion of meat, or herbivores, which are adapted to a vegetarian diet, omnivores have no special adaptations.
They maintain a not very specific biological profile and can feed more or less equally on plant leaves, insects, or red meat from prey. As a result, in many cases, they have mixed dentures equipped with different teeth that can tear, crush or cut, as is the case with the human denture.
On the other hand, their digestive systems fall somewhere between the simple simplicity of carnivores and the delayed complexity of herbivores. In other words, they can only partially digest the most complex and difficult plant material that is normally directly discharged as waste.
Examples of omnivorous animals
When looking for examples of omnivorous animals, the most obvious cause is humans. Some people want only vegetables, others just meat, and a large majority try to balance their food by going to different sources, which in some cases even include insects.
However, we can also list most bears, pigs, crows, raccoons, mice and rats, dogs, possums, certain turtles, crabs, hedgehogs, skunks, fish like piranhas, or the reptiles of the clade Lacertilia.
The human being
In terms of complexity, humans are probably the simplest example of an omnivorous animal. Its teeth are complex and mixed, its digestive system is much more complex than that of a strict carnivore, but much simpler than that of a herbivore, and it is able to feed on different food sources, from fruits, seeds, insects, meat, vegetables , Roots, etc.
There is a debate about whether we always eat this way or whether our species has learned to be omnivorous during its evolutionary history. It is known that our likely ancestors were omnivorous as well, and that many of the monkeys we are normally related to are herbivores with occasional tendencies to consume insects or other meat.
Even so, eating meat (and inventing fire to make it easier to digest) is seen as a fundamental milestone in our evolutionary history, as it would have given us an essential calorie supplement for the formation of more complex brains.
However, it has been shown that a diet high in meat (especially red) affects our metabolism and is unable to handle such a large amount of saturated fat without suffering the consequences. The debate therefore continues.
Carnivorous animals are specialized consumers who get their organic matter primarily from other animals’ bodies. This means that they are either predators or scavengers.
They have sharp teeth to tear the flesh apart, as well as claws, tongs, or other competitive mechanisms to catch their prey and guarantee food. However, some carnivores can supplement their diet with other types of foods.
Examples of carnivorous animals are the lion, the hyena, the vulture, the condor, the pelican, or the tiger.
Herbivores are the other side of the coin than carnivores. They are also consumers, but have an exclusively vegetarian diet, that is, they feed on organic substances of plant origin: leaves, stems, shoots, seeds, fruits, roots, bark, etc.
Because of this, they have special prostheses for grinding plant fibers and long and complex digestive systems of many stomachs that allow the breakdown of cellulose and the extraction of nutrients. This is the case with ruminants who return and chew the feed again until the best digestion is guaranteed.
Examples of herbivorous animals are cows, deer, giraffes, and aphids.
What are omnivorous animals? Examples, Characteristics, 11P