Animal cells and plant cells have several differences and similarities. For example, animal cells do not have cell walls or chloroplasts, while plant cells do. Animal cells are mostly round and irregular shapes, while plant cells have a fixed rectangular shape.
Animal and plant cells are eukaryotic cells, so they have some common features, such as the presence of cell membranes and organelles, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum.
Full comparison Animal cell and plant cell
Animal cell Plant cell
|Cell wall||Absence||Gift (formed of cellulose)|
|Shape||Round (irregular shape)||Rectangle (fixed shape)|
|Vacuum||One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells).||A large central vacuole, accounting for 90% of the cell volume.|
|Center||Exist in all animal cells||Only in the form of low-grade plants (such as Chlamydomonas)|
|Chloroplast||Absence||Plant cells have chloroplasts to make their own food.|
|Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough)||Now||Yes|
|Plasma Membrane||Only cell membrane||Cell wall and cell membrane|
|Flagellum||Exist in certain cells (such as mammalian sperm cells)||Exist in certain cells (for example, sperm of bryophytes and ferns, cycads and ginkgo biloba)|
|Lysosome||Lysosomes occur in the cytoplasm.||Lysosomes are usually not obvious.|
|Cilia||Yes||Most plant cells do not contain cilia.|
Plant cells and animal cells
The difference between plant cells and animal cells is that most animal cells are round, while most plant cells are rectangular. Plant cells have a rigid cell wall surrounding the cell membrane. Animal cells have no cell walls. When viewed under a microscope, the cell wall is an easy way to distinguish plant cells.
Plants are autotrophs; they produce energy from sunlight through photosynthesis, for which they use organelles called chloroplasts. Animal cells have no chloroplasts. In animal cells, energy is produced from food (glucose) through the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration occurs on the mitochondria of animal cells, which are similar in structure to chloroplasts and also have the function of producing energy. However, plant cells also contain mitochondria.
All animal cells have centrioles, but only some cells of lower plant forms have centrioles (for example, male gametophytes, bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, cycads, and ginkgo).
Animal cells have one or more small vacuoles, while plant cells have a large central vacuole that can occupy 90% of the cell volume. In-plant cells, the function of vacuoles is to store water and maintain the cell’s node. Vacuoles in animal cells store water, ions, and waste products.
Lysosomes are membrane-bound globular vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down a variety of biomolecules. It is involved in cellular processes such as secretion, plasma membrane repair, cell signal transduction, and energy metabolism. Animal cells have well-defined lysosomes. The existence of lysosomes in plant cells is still under debate. A few studies have reported the existence of animal lysosomes in plant vacuoles, thus indicating that plant vacuoles fulfill the role of animal lysosome systems.
Diagram of plant cell
Plant Cells and Animal Cells-Differences and Comparisons, and Diagram