Implantation- Process, Events, Significance And Sign
- The term “implantation” is used to describe the process of attachment and invasion of the uterine endometrium by the blastocyst (conceptus) in placental animals.
- It begins at the end of the first week and is completed at the end of the second week of gestation.
- Implantation occurs in the endometrium of the upper uterus in the body region, a little more often in the posterior part than in the anterior wall.
- It involves a receptive endometrium and hormonal factors such as estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, as well as cell adhesion molecules, growth factors, and HOX genes.
- Furthermore, the uterus is ready to accept the implanted embryo only for a limited period known as the “implantation window,” outside of which the endometrium may be indifferent or even hostile to the embryo.
Process of Implantation
- Implantation is a progressive and versatile process in which the blastocyst adheres, adheres, and finally invades the underlying endometrial surface.
- After fertilization and excision, the morula reaches the uterus within three to four days of development.
- On the fifth day, the blastocyst emerges from the protective zona pellucida by enzymatically drilling a hole and squeezing.
- Adjacent cells of the endometrial stroma respond to the presence of the blastocyst and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum by differentiating into metabolically active secretory cells called decidual cells. This response is called a decidual reaction.
- The secretions from the decidual cells and the endometrial glands include metabolites that support the growth of the implanted embryo.
- Subsequently, the blastocyst attaches to the endometrial epithelium.
- This is the initial phase of the implantation process called “implantation”. This first phase requires the newborn blastocyst to adhere freely to the endometrial epithelium, often “rolling” to the eventual implantation site where it has been firmly attached.
- As soon as it adheres, the trophoblast begins to proliferate rapidly and differentiate into:
- The inner layer of cytotrophoblast
- The outer layer of syncytiotrophoblast
- The finger-shaped processes of the syncytiotrophoblast extend through the endometrial epithelium and invade the connective tissue.
- At the end of the first week, the blastocyst implants superficially into the compact layer of the endometrium.
- Subsequently, the uteroplacental circulation develops with the formation of lacunar networks and villi.
Major Events in Implantation
- Day 5: The zona pellucida degenerates.
- Day 6: the blastocyst adheres to the endometrial epithelium.
- Day 7: The trophoblast is divided into two layers: syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast.
- Day 8: Synctiotrophoblast erodes endometrial tissues, and the blastocyst begins to embed itself in the endometrium.
- Day 9: gaps filled with blood appear in syncytiotrophoblast
- Day 10: the blastocyst sinks below the endometrial epithelium and the defect is filled with a closure plug
- Day 10 and 11: lacunar networks are formed by the fusion of adjacent lagoons
- Day 11 and 12: the syncytiotrophoblast erodes the endometrial blood vessels, allowing maternal blood to enter and leave the lacunar networks, thus establishing uteroplacental circulation
- Days 12 and 13: the defect in the endometrial epithelium is repaired
- Days 13 and 14: primary chorionic villi develop
The implanted 12-day embryo produces a minute elevation in the endometrial surface that protrudes into the uterine lumen.
Significance of Implantation
- The implantation process allows the developing blastocyst to obtain nutritional and growth factors from eroded maternal tissues.
- If implantation has not been carried out long enough during the menstrual cycle to allow hormonal feedback to the ovary, then the next cycle may begin to lead to loss of conceptus.
- A conceptus with significant genetic defects does not develop or implant properly, leading to its loss during the first and second week of development.
- In recent years with the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART or IVF), there is increasing interest in this process, with techniques that introduce the blastocyst into the uterus to allow normal implantation to occur.
Sign \Symptoms of implantation
Symptoms of implantation
Actually, it is not clear how common implantation bleeding is. Some sources claim that a third of all women who become pregnant experience implantation bleeding, but this is not actually supported by peer-reviewed research. (Something on the Internet that may not be true? Say it is not!)
This is what we can tell you. Up to 25 percent of women experience bleeding or spotting in the first trimester, and implantation is one of the causes of first trimester bleeding.
This bleeding can be confusing because it can occur around the time that your regular period would start. However, the most common occurrence is a few days or a week before you expect your menstrual period.
There are other differences that can help you determine if you are experiencing implantation bleeding or your period:
- Implantation bleeding is likely to be light pink or brown (as opposed to bright or dark red from your period)
- Implantation bleeding is more like spotting than an actual flow of blood
This staining can occur once, or last a few hours, or even up to three days. You may notice a pink or brown discharge when you clean or put your underwear on, but you won’t need a full pad or tampon, possibly not for many months!
It is no secret that early pregnancy causes a rapid change in hormones. More specifically, implantation is a trigger for increased hormone, so you can’t get that second pink line on a home pregnancy test until after implantation.
And the changing hormonal tide can also cause cramps. Also, a lot is happening in the uterus as the fertilized egg implants and begins to grow.
While there is no research to indicate that the implant itself causes cramps, some women experience abdominal tenderness, lower back pain, or cramps around the time of implantation. This may seem like a mild version of how you feel before your period begins.
If you’ve been monitoring your cervical mucus, good job, mom-to-be! Being aware of what is happening to your body can be enriching when you try to conceive.
You may notice some changes in cervical mucus around the time of implantation.
During ovulation, the cervical mucus will be clear, elastic, and slippery (something like egg whites). You probably already know it as your green light for your baby to dance.
After implantation occurs, the mucus may have a thicker, “rubbery” texture and be light or white in color.
And in the days of early pregnancy, increased progesterone and estrogen can make the mucus thicken, thicker, and white or yellow in color.
However, we hate to say it: Cervical mucus can be affected by a number of things (hormones, stress, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, implantation bleeding or your period, etc.) and may not be a reliable indicator of whether implantation occurred. or not. .
Start tracking your cervical mucus while you’re not pregnant, and a more helpful indicator maybe how different it is from your norm during each stage of your cycle.
The increase in progesterone (which occurs in early pregnancy) slows down your digestive system. This can make you feel bloated. But as many of us know, this feeling can also be a very common symptom of your period. You want to know why? Progesterone also increases when your period is imminent. Thanks, hormones.
After implantation, hCG, estrogen, and progesterone levels increase rapidly. This can cause your breasts to feel very sore. (These hormones are surely multitasking!) While many women experience swelling or tenderness of the breasts before their periods, this is likely to be more noticeable than normal in early pregnancy.
Oh, arguably the most famous of the first symptoms of pregnancy: nausea, also known as “morning sickness” (although it can occur at any time of the day).
Increased progesterone levels after implantation can cause nausea. But again, this most commonly occurs around 4 to 5 weeks of pregnancy (about the time you miss your period).
Progesterone slows down your digestion, which can contribute to nausea. Increasing hCG levels and a more sensitive sense of smell can make the problem worse, so now might be a good time to avoid cooking liver and onions.
While good and necessary for a successful pregnancy, those rising hormone levels (particularly progesterone)