Human Evolution, Timeline, History, and Stages
African Ancestor of Human Species
Earth is more than four billion six million years old. The development of its layer reveals four stages. The fourth stage is called chaturthiki (quaternary), which has two parts, the Pleistocene and the updo (Holocene). The first was between 20 lakh BC to 12,000 BC and the second one started from around 12,000 BC and continues till today.
Earthly life took place about three billion five hundred million years ago. For millions of years, life was limited to plants and animals. Humans originated on Earth during the pre-Pleistocene period and the early Pleistocene period. About six million years ago, the hominid originated in southern and eastern Africa.
Adimanavas, who were not very different from monkeys, appeared on Earth about three crore years ago. The emergence of Australopithecus is the most important event in the emergence of humans. Australopithecus is a Latin word meaning southern apes. It was a male ape and this species had characteristics of both apes and humans.
Australopithecus originated from about 5.5 million years ago to 1.5 million years ago. It had two legs and a raised stomach. Its brain was of very small size (about 400 cubic centimeters). Australopithecus had some of the same characteristics that are found in ‘Homo’ or humans. Australopithecus was the last hominid. Hence, it is also called proto-human or primordial.
Homo habilis called the first human, emerged in eastern and southern Africa from 20 million to 1.5 million years ago. homohabilis means a hand man or an artisan human. This first real human used them as tools by breaking stones into pieces and cutting them.
So wherever Homo Willis bones have been found, pieces of stone have also been found there. The brain of homo habilis was mild (500–700 cc). Human or Homo erectus directly appeared on Earth 18-16 million years ago.
He is credited for the construction of the stone hand-ax (Hand-X) and the invention of fire. Unlike homo habilis, Homo erectus traveled long distances. Apart from Africa, their remains have been found in China, South Asia, and South-East Asia.
The next important step in the emergence of humans was the emergence of Homo sapiens (intelligent humans) on Earth. Modern humans originated from Homo sapiens. It has many similarities to Neanderthal humans found in Germany.
The period of Homo sapiens can be determined from 2,30,000 to 30,000 years ago. Its body was small and frontal narrow, but its brain size was large (1200–1800 cc).
Modern humans or Homo sapiens appeared in southern Africa during the Upper Palaeolithic period 115,000 years ago. Its frontal was larger than other hominids and bones were thin. Modern humans made many kinds of stone tools for different kinds of work.
But it is not clear whether he could speak or not. Until recently, it has been believed that the language was born in about 35,000 BC but now the time of the birth of the language is considered as 50,000 BC.
The brain of modern humans was relatively large (about 1200–2000 cc). The modern human being was more intelligent because of his brain and he could change his surroundings.
History of Human Evolution
Science has made many efforts to understand the invention of mankind which has also yielded successful results. According to science, the history of humans is related to the sea. The first species living in water originated such as fish, water-dwelling insects, etc.
Slowly the cycle of time continued. The creatures living in water and land came and started living their lives like these frogs, crab, etc. Time kept changing and nature was doing its work, sometimes floods and sometimes droughts, lives were being born and died.
Many species evolved during this period and many have disappeared. This sequence continued in this way and dinosaurs, apes, chimpanzees, forest animals came and after this the development of two-legged humans.
According to scientific belief, the monkey is the creator of mankind. Gradually, the monkey-like creature learned to use two legs with the power to understand and by breaking the fruits, vegetables, and trees associated with the earth, he began to satisfy his hunger.
The monkey’s intelligence began to develop and it was able to take the form of a human being and quit using four legs and started walking with the help of two legs. Now it started using all the parts of the human body. The tail ended due to no use, but its remains are still found at the end of the backbone of the human body.
In this way, human society has evolved and human has become an intellectual organism which has resorted to manipulating the gifts given by nature by using its demonic intellect to simplify its life.
Religion in Human Evolution
According to Hindu beliefs, there is no developed form of human monkeys. According to mythological texts, there are variations in the origin of monkeys and mankind. In comparison to history, there have been some changes in the structure of today’s human beings. Just like the length, the age, the color, etc., but it looks like the human as it was in ancient times. Just as the species of organisms are found on the earth, similarly many species of mankind still exist today.
According to religion, the human world is created by God. The person who came first in this world. He gave birth to mankind, but now another puzzle emerges that who was the first person?
This puzzle has also been solved according to Hinduism. According to Hinduism, the first person to take life in the world was “Manu”. Based on which the name of this caste was given to mankind.
Who was “Manu”?
According to a legend, “Manu” was composed by Lord Brahma himself. It is told in this story that for the human world, Lord Brahma created two people, a male, and a female. The two souls that Lord Brahma created for the creation of the world. Out of that, the male was “Manu” and the female was “Shatrupa”. These efforts of Brahma Ji can be said that Brahma Ji is the follower of this world and is the ancestor of all mankind.
The synonyms of the word “Manu” itself are a man in Sanskrit language and man in the English language.
The Bible of Christianity also has “Manu”
Manu is also mentioned in the Bible of Christianity. According to the Bible, the human world is also created by God. The Bible states that a shadow was born from the body of God and this shadow was named “Adam”. The stories of these two religions make it easy to conclude that Manu is the creator of the human world, that is, God has created mankind.
Therefore, the facts of religion are opposite to the facts of science. According to science, God has not created the creation, but mankind has been created by monkeys.
Evolution by Stages
Development involves gradual changes from simple to more complex forms. Man is believed to have evolved from simple forms. The concept of this development started billions of billions of years ago. Darwin theorized evolutionism. Darwin mentions in his book – The Origin of Species that evolution took place through a series of natural selection. The theory emphasized the following points:
- Struggle for Existence
- Survival of the Fittest
- Natural Selection
- Evolution is the result of the interaction between the following five processes:
- Genetic Recombination
- Chromosomal Abnormalities
- Natural Selection
- Reproductive isolation
Stages in Human Evolution
The following are the stages of human evolution:
They are considered to be ancestors of both men and apes. They lived in Africa, China, Europe, and India. The genus Dryopithecus means oak wood apes. When Dryopithecus was alive, the tropical lowland areas inhabited were densely forested, so the members were predominantly herbivores.
His first remains were discovered from the Shivalik range in Punjab and later in Africa and Saudi Arabia. They lived in an open meadow. Two pieces of evidence confirm their hominid status:
- Strong jaws, tooth enamel, and small cans.
- Use of hands for food and defense, and extrapolation of upright posture.
The fossil of this gene was first discovered in 1924 in South Africa. They lived on the ground, used stones as weapons, and walked upright. They were 4 feet long and weighed 60–80 pounds.
The first fossil of Homo erectus was found in Java in 1891. These were named Pytanthropus Erectus. They were considered to be the missing link between man and monkey. Another discovery made in China was Peking Man. This specimen had a large cranial capacity and is believed to have lived in communities. Homo erectus used instruments made of quartz. Tools made of bones and wood have also been discovered. There is evidence of mass poaching. There is also evidence of the use of fire. Homo erectus is believed to inhabit the caves.
5.Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens. During development, two subspecies of Homo sapiens were identified – Homo sapiens Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sapiens. Neanderthal cranial capacity increased from 1200 to 1600 cc. A few small hand axes were also discovered. This species of hominids were capable of hunting big game such as mammoths.
6.Homo Sapiens Sapiens
The remains of Homo sapiens were first discovered in Europe and were named Cro-Magnon. In these, the jaws are considerably reduced, the chin of modern man is visible, and the skull is rounded. Their cranial capacity was about 1350 cc. They collected food through hunting. During this time, art appeared for the first time.
Timeline of human evolution
The Timeline of human evolution
The time frame of human development outlines the major events in the development of human species and the development of human ancestors.
It begins at the time of the origin of life and presents a possible line of descent for man.
This timeline is based on the study of paleontology, developmental biology, morphology, and physiological and genetic data.
The study of human development is a major component of anthropology.
The Wikipedia timeline begins with the appearance of early life-forms at 4000 MYA and includes 10 MYA, when human ancestors speculate from the ancestors of the gorillas.
The first physically modern humans (Homo sapiens) appear in Africa shortly before 100kYA – they evolved from Homo heidelbergensis.