A gene is a highly specific sequence of nucleotide monomers that can fully or partially regulate the expression of one or more traits in every type of living organism. Genes are formed from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and in the case of some viruses, ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers.
It was Wilhelm Johansen who first used the word ‘gene‘, using his botanical background to study the genetic characteristics of plants. Modern genetics no longer accept earlier theories that represent genes as a unique piece of information that can produce only one protein. We now know that a gene messenger is capable of providing multiple, different transcription units of RNA (mRNA) where the replication process begins.
A single gene can also make up a small portion of the mRNA transcription unit; Again, where the transcription process is initiated according to the gene.
It is now understood that genes are capable of performing a second function without losing their original function or undergoing the replication process. This phenomenon, known as ‘protein moonlighting’, means that a gene can be edited without being copied incorrectly. The common definition of a single gene controlling a single function is outdated; Although genetic research remains in its infancy, it is clear that a single gene may have a multilateral role.
The gene examples listed here are recent examples. A list created in the future may be different. Due to the current boom in genetic research and our understanding of the codes that make each organism unique, gene examples are constantly evolving.
RNA Virus Genes
Viruses can be classified according to gene type. They can be either RNA or DNA viruses. The genes found inside the virus range from a handful to a maximum of 200 genes.
RNA viruses exhibit extremely high rates of gene mutation – mutation transforming a natural sequenced sequence into a different sequence, either at a single point or across multiple regions of the gene, and during replication, transcription, and translation. This rate of mutation can be as high as one mutation for each replication. DNA mutation rates are very rare – in the tens of approximately one thousand in every few hundred replicates.
Viruses can also alter their genetic information through recombination, where two viruses exchange their genetic material inside a host organism. A virus (retrovirus) can also insert a copy of its genome into host cells.
This ability to continuously change the genetic code means that the RNA virus can adapt to survive and replicate in pre-existing immune or resistant hosts. Some of the world’s most feared viruses are RNA viruses. This group of pathogens includes viruses that cause Ebola, rabies, influenza, West Nile fever, polio, and measles.
An example of a viral gene would be BALF5. This gene produces the DNA polymerase protein subunit in the Epstein-Barr virus.
Depending on the complexity of the bacteria, it is estimated to have between 500 and 7500 genes. Many bacteria have a single chromosome that contains bacterial genomes, as well as distinct structures called plasmids, which can replicate independently of the chromosome. This places the DNA inside a plasmid named ‘extrachromosomal DNA’. While the chromosomes of bacteria are generally reported to be circular, they can also be linear.
An example of a bacterial gene is blaOXA-2, which encodes a protein that contributes to beta-lactamase production. The finished product is an enzyme known to increase resistance to many bacteria, including Escherichia Coli, to beta-lactam antibiotics.
The more complex the organism, the more complex its genome, and the greater the number of genes. The Human Genome Project estimates that approximately 30,000 human genes provide codes for proteins that make up the specific anatomical and physiological identity of each individual.
The human genome has about three billion base pairs as a subunit of deoxyribonucleic acid nucleotide monomers. The sequence of these base pairs forms the code of each gene, and each gene provides transferable data for one or more proteins.
The forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) gene encodes a transcription factor. The FOXP2 gene is found in the same chromosomal loci in every human cell (except mature red blood cells) but is expressed only in the brain, intestine, and lungs. It specifically binds with the transcription factor DNA but is not limited to just one function because it has the ability to bind with hundreds of DNA promoters and therefore, as previously mentioned, contribute to the production of more than one protein Can do. However, one of the primary functions of FOXP2 is in the human development of speech and language. We know this because of mutations in the FOXP2 gene cause om autosomal dominant speech and language disorder with orofacial dyspraxia ‘or SPCH1.
The BRCA gene mutation is known to cause breast cancer. BRCA generally prevents tumor formation by repairing DNA damage caused by gene pollution, diet, lifestyle habits such as smoking, radiation exposure, and many other factors. In humans with mutated or damaged BRCA genes, this protection no longer applies. Men and women with BRCA mutations are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer by either locus 17q21 (BRCA1) or 13q12.3 (BRCA2), and women are at greater risk of developing ovarian cancer.
The COL1A1 gene binds to a single component of alpha-1 type I collagen, a protein found in many types of connective tissue. This gene local can be found at 17q21.33. This ‘address’ refers to the position of the COL1A1 gene on the 17th chromosome, specifically on the long ‘Q’ arm, and in region 2, band 1, sub-band 33.
MTHFR gives the code to the human body that requires the creation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. A mutation in the MTHFR gene is actually quite common, and this result means an obstacle or inability to take steps within the process of manufacturing end products such as the homocysteine and the nucleoside thymidine. This can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia which leads to some vitamin B deficiencies; One of these, vitamin B9 (folic acid), is essential for fetal nerve development.
CXorf38 is another gene that codes proteins for tissue formation. Cxorf38 is predominantly expressed in the glands and lymph nodes and can be found in locus Xp11.4, indicating the X chromosome (non-autosomal chromosome or sex chromosome), which is the small ‘P’ arm, Region 1, band 1, is a sub-band. 4.
A gene is not the same as a genome. A genome describes the complete genetic blueprint of a single organism; A gene is a specific part of an organism’s DNA or, in viruses, RNA.
A gene consists of a sequenced chain of nucleic acids that are able to pass on pieces of genetic information through the process of replication, transcription, and translation, and provide one or more proteins, whose specific sequence of codes Is based on that piece of paper.
Other terms often fall into the field of genetics:
- Attribute: a distinctive feature, such as eye color
- Locus: the position on a chromosome where a single gene can be found
- Alleles: possible variants of single genes found on single genes, such as part of the blueprint data for blue and brown eyes
- Genotype: A complete set of alleles found at one or more genes and at different locations that control a single trait.
- Phenotype: observable traits – the actual eye color of the organism
Genes are associated with many other processes because they are the primary building blocks of life. This title was first given to amino acids, but it is the genes that are responsible for the code to make amino acids and their progeny – proteins.
A scientific breakthrough in recent decades, gene therapy modifies existing genes, either resetting mutations or producing a specific protein. It does this by using a virus that has been made harmless to carry new genetic information to the target cell. This courier function gives the virus a new name: a vector. Gene therapy has not yet developed into a viable and common human therapy and is still in a very early stage. Research currently focuses on designing a safe but effective vector, but clinical trials have already begun on some populations and successes include immune deficiencies, hereditary degenerative vision, hemophilia, thalassemia, fat metabolism, and cancer. Huh. However, success stories are intermittent and vectors can sometimes cause other disorders.
Genes and genetic information can undergo mutation in various ways. These include nonsense, inaccurate, silent, and substitution mutations and can occur in DNA either during the processes of replication, transcription, and translation. Only a small percentage of gene mutations cause benign tumor development or cancer. Mutations can be hereditary or acquired. Acquired mutations can occur due to environmental factors such as radiation, chemical pollutants, viral and bacterial infections, and physiological processes of degeneration, such as the aging process.
Gene flow is also known as gene migration or allele flow, and concerns the merger of a species through the transfer of its genetic information. For gene flow to occur, it must occur during a period of migration where the DNA of a typically absent population enters the gene pool of another.
The sum of all genes (expressed and non-expressed) within the population of a single species is known as a gene pool. This gives a wide range of possible prototypes and therefore a wide variation between the same species.
Some genes are expressed only at certain times or in certain tissues or cell types. Each mechanism that induces or suppresses gene expression is classified under gene regulation.
Sewell Green Wright, the geneticist, was the first to theorize about this mechanism of development, where some individuals within the population produce more offspring than others. It does not have to be because these individuals are fitter or stronger (survival of the fittest), but can be caused by other factors.
An example might be that alpha males of a predatory pack of African wild dogs being killed during a hunting trip leave one or two vulnerable males to provide future descendants. This leads to a drift towards the genetic information of these individuals.
Gene Definition, Overview, Examples, Genetic Terms, and Gene Terminology