Biodiversity Definition, Types, Importance and Example
The biosphere layer of living organisms chemically unites the atmosphere, terrain, and hydrosphere in the ecosystem, through the collective metabolic activities of its countless plants, animals, and microorganisms, in which millions of species, including humans, have grown.
Breathable air, potable water, fertile soil, productive lands, seas, the justified environment of Earth’s recent history, and other ecosystem services are expressions of life’s workings.
What is biodiversity?
First of all, let us tell you what biodiversity means. As its name suggests. Biodiversity or organism and diversity are their variations, that is, the variations of an organism. Different types or characteristics found in the species of living animals are called biodiversity. In this, animals, birds, plants, or other animals, all come in this biodiversity.
For example, if we see the desert plants, they will be different, the animals will be different and the animals will get different, and if we see the animals in the aquatic area. So animals, animals, trees, plants, and plants are found here. That is, they all have different variations.
This is called biodiversity. If we talk the indirect language, that is, the living and life of any animal or animal and its food and its vision are different from other animals. It is called biodiversity. Like, say you have a dog. And if there is a bird, then when you feed them. So the way to feed both of them will be different, so there are variations. They are not like each other. This is bio-diversity. Now you might have understood very well what is Jai variety. Biodiversity is mainly divided into three parts. So below we are telling you about them. First, we will talk about genetic biodiversity.
Definition of Biodiversity
Biodiversity is defined as “the variability between living organisms, including all sources, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and ecological complexes; It involves diversity within species, between species and ecosystems ”.
The importance of this definition is that it draws attention to several dimensions of biodiversity.
It clearly recognizes that each biota can be characterized by its taxonomic, ecological, and genetic diversity, and the way these dimensions of diversity vary over space and time is a key feature of biodiversity. Thus only a multidisciplinary assessment of biodiversity provides insight into the relationship between changes in biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems and changes in ecosystem services.
Biodiversity includes all managed or unmanaged ecosystems. Biodiversity is sometimes considered a relevant feature of only unmanaged ecosystems, such as wildlands, nature conservation, or national parks. But this is wrong. Managed systems — tree planting, farmland, cropland, aquaculture sites, rangeland, or even urban parks and urban ecosystems — have their own biodiversity.
Despite many tools and data sources, biodiversity is difficult to quantify accurately. To assess biodiversity conditions and trends, it is necessary to measure the abundance of all organisms over space and time, using taxonomy (such as a number of species), either globally or sub-globally. Currently, it is not possible to do this with greater accuracy because it lacks data.
Biodiversity is a driver of ecosystem status, services, or change, but any ecological indicator captures all dimensions of biodiversity.
Scientists have named three different levels of biodiversity:
Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Together, they form a set of data that can describe the biodiversity of the land, freshwater, or oceanic regions. The area can be large or small. We can see the ecological biodiversity of Mississippi. Or of China. Or the Great Barrier Reef. On a smaller scale, we can describe the biodiversity of a local forest, park, or pond. A human can also see the biodiversity of the intestine or a spoonful of soil. These are all ecological habitats or ecosystems in which biodiversity can be measured.
Types of Biodiversity
Ecological biodiversity is measured by looking at its three levels of genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity.
Genetic diversity is mainly based on chromosomes. When any kind of variation is found in animals and animals of the same species. So it is called genetic biodiversity.
For example, if you assume that a human comes in the Homocepian species, then even after coming to the Homocepian species, the differences between two brothers or two sisters are different. Because they belong to the same species but still their differences are different. Whether it is any of their variations, whether it is about their height, whether it is about their color, whether it is about their face, whether they are eating or drinking, their speaking, or their body, in any way. All of those things will be completely different. It is never the same, so all these things fall within the genetic diversity. And it is also found in the offspring of a single parent and the main reason for this is that the variation of their chromosome is due to the change of chromosomes and such variation is found in the same species.
Each individual within a population usually has slightly different forms of genes that give them their unique properties.
Genetic diversity or genetic diversity is essential for any species to maintain reproductive viability, resistance to disease, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions. Individuals who can survive and reproduce on these favorable genes. These are known as natural selection.
In this time of changing climate and increasing human pressure, the ability to adapt and survive is important for the continued survival of the species. And if a species disappears, it can make a difference to an entire ecosystem.
Species diversity is a measure of the number of different species in an ecological community and their relative abundance. The identification and classification of species are known as taxonomy.
Each species has a role in the ecosystem, being a predator, prey, pollinator, or seed disperser, among many others. If a species goes extinct, the entire ecosystem is affected. For example, if bees went extinct, then fruits and vegetables could be next, and then animals that feed on them.
Two or more species found in a particular place at a particular time is called ethnic biodiversity.
Like if you assume you have dogs at the same time. There are also cats. And there are horses too. Or there are some other animals. So you have different species at the same place at the same time. So it comes in ethnic biodiversity.
1. Rich species – Another thing also comes in the species biodiversity. Which is known as rich species? A rich species is that when there are two or more species at the same place at the same time, and any species that has more numbers in those species is called rich species. For example, if you have five dogs, 5 cats, and 10 horses at the same place at the same time, then all of them will be considered as rich species.
2. Equal species-area – When the number of species of all species is equal or equal at a particular place at a particular time, then where does the equal species-area go from it. Suppose you have four dogs 4 cats four horses at a particular place at a particular time. It is difficult to guess. Which species is more in number? By the way, very little happens. That the number of all castes should be the same, but even if their number will be the same in any way, then, in that case, they are called equal species area.
3. Global Biodiversity – If there are many species at a particular place at a particular time. And they all have different variations. So they are called global biodiversity. Suppose if elephant dog, cat, horse, camel at the same place, it all exists at the same place at the same time. So all these characteristics have different variations. So where will they go for global biodiversity in this situation?
This is the number of combinations of different species within a particular region.
Community diversity supports the continuity of functioning in appropriate ecosystems, providing important services to the people. These include clean water for drinking and agriculture, flood control, protection from soil erosion, air filtering, climate stability, pollution absorption, medicinal resources, etc.
Importance of biodiversity
1. Earth’s balance – Biodiversity contributes significantly to the Earth’s balance. Which is our ecosystem? There is a food trap in it. Different types of organisms pass through that food trap. The first start is from its plants. The plants eat vegetarian organisms; Vegetarian organisms eat some carnivorous organisms. The balance of our Earth remains, if these organisms do not eat each other, then the number of organisms or animals on our earth will increase greatly, so biodiversity helps us in maintaining the balance of our earth.
2. Foodstuff – It is very important to have single biodiversity in maintaining the balance of foods. Like we get pulses or other fruits or other edible things from plants. And like we also eat meat. And we get things like milk or ghee from animals. So it is all due to biodiversity. The balance of all these remains due to biodiversity. Therefore, biodiversity for food is very beneficial for us.
3. Drug making – You all will know that many tree plants and animal animals are used to make medicines. Therefore, this biodiversity is also important for our drug manufacturing.
4. The beauty of Earth – Due to biodiversity, the beauty of our Earth also increases. Like we plant many types of trees in our house or around us. Because of which the beauty of our home increases, biodiversity is also very important in maintaining the beauty of the earth.
5. Religious form – Religious form is also necessary. Like we worship plants. Like worshiping Tulsi. Let’s worship Peepal. Or worship cow also. So it is also important for us religiously.
Today, Biodiversity on Earth is the result of about 3.5 billion years of development. Until the rise of humans, the Earth supports more biodiversity than any other period in geological history. However, after the dominance of humans, biodiversity has begun to decline rapidly, and one species after another has started going extinct. Maintenance of biodiversity is important for the following reasons:
Each species performs a particular function within an ecosystem. They can capture and store energy, produce organic materials, decompose organic materials, help cycle water and nutrients throughout the ecosystem, control erosion or pests, Can fix atmospheric gases, or help control the climate.
Ecosystems provide support to production and services without which humans cannot survive. These include soil fertility, plant progenitors, predators, decomposition of wastes, air and water purification, stabilization and climate restraint, floods, droughts, and other environmental disasters.
Research shows that the more diverse an ecosystem is, the more it can withstand environmental stresses, and the more productive it is.
Economic benefits for humans
For all humans, biodiversity is first a resource for daily life. Such ‘crop diversity’ is also called agricultural biodiversity.
Most people view biodiversity as a reservoir of resources for manufacturing food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products. Thus resource scarcity may be related to erosion of biodiversity. Some items like – food, medicine, textile industry, tourism, etc.
The moral reason for Biodiversity
The role of biodiversity mirrors our relationship with other living species, rights, duties, and moral attitudes with education. If humans believe that species have the right to exist, they cannot voluntarily cause their extinction. Also, biodiversity is part of the spiritual heritage of many cultures.
Biodiversity Definition, Types, Importance and Example